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1. For purposes of this essay the Crenshaw area surrounding the Holiday Bowl is designated at Wilshire to the north, Slauson to the south, Arlington to the east, and La Brea to the west.

2. George J. Sánchez. Creating Multiracialism on the Eastside during the 1950s. American Quarterly 56.3 (2004) 633-661.  George Lipsitz. The Possessive Investment in Whiteness: How White People Profit from Identity Politics. (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1998.)

3. Robert D. Putnam. Bowling Alone: the Collapse and Revival of American Community. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001).

4. “New Bowling Facility.” Los Angeles Times. (12/1/1957).

5. Excerpt of interview with Katsumi Hirooka Kunitsugu. Regenerations: Rebuilding Japanese American Families, Communities, and Civil Rights in the Resettlement Era. Japanese American National Museum, 259-260.

6. John Saito, Jr. “The End of An Era.” Rafu Shimpo.  (5/12/2000).

7. Renee Gunter, interview notes.

8. Los Angeles Times.  (11/2/67).

9. Josh Sides. L.A. City Limits: African American Los Angeles from the Great Depression to the Present. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004) 191.

10. Ann Post. “Letters to the Editor.” Los Angeles Times. (4/24/65).

11. “They Are Showing It Really Works.” Los Angeles Times. (9/5/66).

12. Ken Hamamura, interview notes.

13. Judy Heimlich, interview notes.

14. La Verne Hughes, interview notes.

15. John English, interview notes.  John English co-lead the Coalition to Save the Holiday Bowl.

16. Website  "Bowling Gone Bye-Bye." At on February 2, 2005.

17. Alan Hess.  Googie Redux: Ultra Modern Roadside Architecture.  (San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 2004).

18. Jewish Historical Society website located at visited on February 25, 2005.

19. Los Angeles City Planning website located at visited on February 25, 2005.

20. Civil Practices Network website located at visited on February 25, 2005.

21. George Takei, Interview notes.

22. Lisa Loomer. Broken Hearts (A BH Mystery). (1999).

23. Nina Revoyr. Southland.  (New York: Akashic Books, 2004) 156-157.

24. “Wisconsin Stories: Let’s Go Bowl.” Website at visited on February 25, 2005.

25. Saito, Ibid.

26. Renee Gunter, interview notes.

27. Arthur Sutton, interview notes.

28. When You’re Smiling: the Deadly Legacy of Internment.  Janice D. Tanaka writer and director.

29. Clara Harris, interview notes.

30. Saito, Ibid.

31. Dolores Hayden. The Power of Place: Urban Landscapes as Public History. (Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1995), 227-228.  “Survey Finds Californians Feel Disconnected From Their Communities and Each Other. But Californians Think Telling Their Stories Will Help Bring Them Together.” The study surveyed 404 English speaking adult heads of  household. At website for the California Council for the Humanities at accessed on December 17, 2001.

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